Humanity's repository of the Buddhist wisdom: the full text of 85
volumes of Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō (大正新脩大藏經), is now available on-line.
The SAT Daizōkyō Text Database Committee
opens this data for public use with
the full approval of Daizō Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha, the original
publisher of the
Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō
SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 2012 Edition (SAT 2012)
The 2012 edition of the SAT Daizōkyō text database
(SAT 2012) aims at enhancing the usability of the online Taishō
Shinshū Daizōkyō. It reflects the results of our latest research
regarding the methods of accurate gathering and confirmation of
academic information. This is based on four main principles: (1)
assuring the reliability of textual sources; (2) construction of a
sustainable collaboration system for researchers; (3) achievement of
cooperation between research projects while respecting individual
independence, and (4) offering an interface that can apply these
various functions in an integrated manner. As is explained below, it
is at present a cutting-edge example of the kind of digital approach
to research that is advancing rapidly around the world. The value of
this work has been well-acknowledged at the various academic symposia where it has been presented, and it is buttressed by a high level of academic reliability. These efforts have been advanced based on the collective power of the various academic societies (both domestic and international), cooperation from public service corporations, domestic and foreign scholars, and graduate students, as listed in item #5 below.
(1) Assuring the reliability of textual sources
The Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō has been widely used in
the field of Buddhist Studies as a basic canonical authority both in
Japan and abroad. It has a form suitable for modern literary studies
in its maintenance and presentation of "location
information" — an indispensable basis for sharing the
results of one's research; thus the digital form of the Daizōkyō has
taken on the role of basis for the entire domain of Buddhist textual
research. Securing this location information for the continuity and
maintenance of the research when the medium is converted from paper to
digital is in itself an important issue. The SAT database is
constructed in such as way as to allow access to the location information in the book and the location information in a digital medium in a confirmable manner.
An especially important new addition in SAT 2012 is the making available of the image of the original pages with the ability to zoom in and out, so that one may confirm the words of the text in detail. For example if the reader accesses the below URL he or she can go to the pointed line location:
At present, using this function, to reflect the text
of the Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō more accurately, proofreading of the
original texts is being continually carried out at present with the
help of many young researchers. Various problems concerning the Taishō
Shinshū Daizōkyō will be solved in the future, and a canonical source
with high reliability or more that reflects study results of Buddhist
Studies to up to present is planned to be offered through the digital medium. [Related presentations]
(2) Construction of a sustainable collaboration system for researchers
Not only in Buddhist Studies, but also in the humanities in general,
the gathering of the cooperation of various information and research
results in a single location to become the basis for conducting
research is an extremely important concern. By collaboration through
the Internet, in recent years this is rapidly becoming feasible
— in various fields around the world research and practice are
now developed based on this model. Making this zeitgeist its priority,
SAT, through web collaboration, is aiming to construct the basic
material of the Buddhist studies research in a collaborative manner
through the digital medium. Presently, as part of this activity, we
are also conducting the proofreading of the text of the Taishō
Daizōkyō and the matching of parallel sentences in the English
translations of the Taishō done by the Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai (BDK). This
kind of system is theoretically extensible to the study of Buddhist
canonical corpora as a whole as different portions of the Taishō canon
can be compared to Sanskrit, Tibetan, and other versions of the
canon. We intend to extend this practice in the near future.[Related presentations]
(3) Achievement of cooperation between research projects while respecting individual independence
Recently, various digitization projects are growing around the world
in the fields of Indian, East Asian, and Buddhist Studies. Although
from the user's perspective it is preferable to be able to have access
to them in an integrated manner, each project has developed in its own
distinct way through its own distinct history, and is usually stored
in its own distinct format, with its own delivery system. And for
funding purposes, as well as for future development, the maintenance
of that distinct identity is of utmost importance. Thus, in order to
use such various resources in an integrated manner, it is necessary to
overcome various kinds of technical hurdles. SAT has now reached a
certain level of success in achieving a format that allows the
integrated usage of these resources while preserving their independent
identity. Thus, in SAT 2012, readers have access to the lexical
reference work, the Digital
Dictionary of Buddhism along with the article databases of INBUDS, SARDS, CiNii, and the logographic information resources Chise, Chise Linkmap, HMS, and the Unihan database. We expect to expand the scope of this integrated functionality in the future. [Related presentations]
(4) Offering an interface that can apply these various resources in an integrated manner
SAT aims at the offering of an interface that can use the
above-mentioned various functions integrated in a Web browser. SAT
2012 offers the separate functions of the main Taishō text view (and related footnotes), search and retrieval, and linking with other data in a convenient manner. Search options include enhanced functions of narrowed-down searches, and Keyword in Context (KWIC) display. For details, see the instructions for usage. [Related presentations]
(5) SAT 2012 Groups and persons collaborating in the development of SAT 2012
(6) Related presentations
The following is a list of presentations related to development of SAT 2012.
Presentations relating to development of the SAT 2012
Shimoda, Masahiro, "Seinaru shomotsu no kanata ni: Aratanaru bukkyō-shi e (*Beyond Sacred Scriptures: Toward the New Horizon of the History of Buddhism, in Japanese)," Gengo to shintai: Seinarumono no ba to baitai (*Language and Corpus: Topos and Medium of Sacredness), Iwanami kōza shūkyō (*Iwanami Series of Religion) Vol. 5, 25-52. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 2004.
- Shimoda, Masahiro, "The State of Research on Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Mahāyāna as Seen in the Development in the Study of Mahāyāna Sūtras," Acta Asiatica: Bulletin of the Institute of Eastern Culture No. 96, edited by A. Saito, 1-23. Tokyo: Tōhō gakkai, 2009.
Shimoda, Masahiro, "Baitai no tenkai tosite no bukkyōshi: Kyōten kenkyū to jinbungaku no ichi shōraizō (*History of Buddhism Seen from the Development of the Medium as an Example for the Humanities in the Future, in Japanese)," Shūkyōshi towa nanika (*What is the History of Religion?) edited by H. Ichikawa, K. Matsumura, and K. Watanabe, 451-476. Tokyo: LITHON, 2009.
- Shimoda, Masahiro, "Some Reflections on the History of Buddhist Canons in Ancient India", Indian Philosophy and Text Science, edited by T. Wada, 33-57. Delhi: Motiral Banarsidass, 2010.
- Muller, A. Charles, Kōzaburō Hachimura, Shoichiro Hara, Toshinobu Ogiso, Mitsuru Aida, Koichi Yasuoka, Ryo Akama, Masahiro Shimoda, Tomoji Tabata, and Kiyonori Nagasaki, "The Origins and Current State of Digitization of Humanities in Japan," Digital Humanities 2010 (2010): 68-70.
Shimoda, Masahiro, "Kindai bukkyōgaku no keisei to tenkai (*Formation and Development of Modern Buddhist Studies, in Japanese),"
Bukkyō no keisei to tenkai: Shin ajia bukkyōshi 02 (*Formation and Development of Indian Buddhism: A New History of Buddhism in Asia), India 2 edited by M. Shimoda et. al., 13-55. Tokyo: Kōsei Publishing, 2010.
Shimoda, Masahiro, "Kyōten (*Scriptures, in Japanese)," Shūkyōgaku jiten (*A Dictionary of Religious Studies), 22-25. Tokyo: Maruzen, 2010.
Shimoda, Masahiro, "Kyōten kenkyū no tenkai kara mita Daijōbukkyō (*The Mahāyāna as Seen in the Development in the Study of Mahāyāna Sūtras, in Japanese),"
Daijōbukkyō towa nanika: Shirīzu daijō bukkyō 1 (*What is Mahāyāna Buddhism?: Series Mahāyāna Buddhism 1, in Japanese), edited by M. Shimoda et.al., 39-71. Tokyo: Shunjūsha, 2011.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Daizōkyō no Rekishi to Genzai,(*History and current status of Daizōkyō, in Japanese)," Gendai Bukkyō no Kanōsei: Shin-Asia bukkyō-shi 15 (*Possibilities of Buddhism in the modern world: A New History of Buddhism in Asia), Japan 5, edited by Fumihiko Sueki et al., 15-33. Tokyo: Kōsei Publishing, 2011.
Kyūma, Taiken, Izumi Miyazaki, and Tōru Tomabechi, "Hyper-Lamotte, Cyber-Frauwallner? Transmitting "traditional" methods of Buddhist Studies in the Web-sphere," (paper presented at the XVIth Congress of the International Association for Buddhist Studies 2011, Dharma Drum Buddhist College (Taiwan), June 25, 2011).
Tomabechi, Tōru, "Buddhist Philology in the Age of Digital Humanities: Retro- and Prospect," (paper presented at the Osaka Symposium on Digital Humanities 2011, Osaka University (Osaka), September 13, 2011).
- Matsuda, Kuninori, Nobumi Iyanaga, and Kiyonori Nagasaki, "Digitizing the Hōbōgirin Following the Mark-up Guidelines of TEI: Potentialities and Problems," (paper presented at the Osaka Symposium on Digital Humanities 2011, Osaka University (Osaka), September 13, 2011).
- Iwasaki, Yōichi, Kiyonori Nagasaki, Masahiro Shimoda, and Hiroko Kume, "Multi-Device Delivery of Research Results: Case Study of Ningbo Project," (paper presented at the Culture and Computing 2011, Kyoto University (Kyoto), October 22, 2011).
(1) Assuring the reliability of textual sources^
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "On a Database of Indian Buddhist Philosophy Based on Division by Syllables," IPSJ SIG Technical Report 2006-CH-71 (2006): 33-40.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Digital Archives of Indian Buddhist Philosophy Based on the Relationship between Content Objects," IPSJ SIG Technical Report 2007-CH-75 (2007): 31-38.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, and Masahiro Shimoda, "Towards an Appropriate Method of Description of Digitized Texts in theField of Eastern Classics," IPSJ Symposium series Vol. 2010 No. 15 (2010): 311-316.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, Tōru Tomabechi and Masahiro Shimoda "Toward a Digital Research Environment for Buddhist Studies," Digital Humanities 2011 (2011): 342-343.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "How to Treat Digital Media in the Field of Indian and Buddhist Studies," Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 60-2 (2012):
(2) Construction of a sustainable collaboration system for researchers^
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, Takayasu Suzuki and Masahiro Shimoda, "The Development of a Collaboration System for the Text Database of the Taisho Tripitaka," IPSJ SIG Technical Report 2006-CH-70 (2006): 33-40.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Stake-holders related to the Digital Archives for the Humanities as Seen through the Digital Archives for the Buddhist Texts," IPSJ Symposium series Vol. 2007 No. 15 (2007): 347-354.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "A Collaboration System for the Philology of the Buddhist Study," Digital Humanities 2008 (2008): 262-263.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, Hiroyuki Shirasu, and Masahiro Shimoda "A Multilingual Parallel Corpus System for Daizōkyō," IPSJ Symposium series Vol. 2009 No. 16 (2009): 129-134.
(3) Achievement of cooperation between research projects while respecting individual independence^
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Cycle of Contents of Digital Archives in the Humanities," Seminar on Applying Computers to Oriental Studies (2008): 115-125.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori and Masahiro Shimoda, "Towards an Appropriate Method of Description of Digitized Texts in theField of Eastern Classics," IPSJ Symposium series Vol. 2008 No. 15 (2008): 19-26.
- Muller, A. Charles, and Kiyonori Nagasaki, "The Present Status of the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism and its Potentials for Usage in Translation and Markup," (paper presented at the workshop on Early Chán Manuscripts among the Dūnhuáng Findings - Resources in the Mark-up and Digitization of Historical Texts, University of Oslo (Oslo), October 1, 2009).
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, A. Charles Muller, Masahiro Shimoda "Aspects of the Interoperability in the Digital Humanities," Digital Humanities 2009 (2009): 375-377.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Interoperation of Databases for Buddhist Studies," (paper presented at the XVIth Congress of the International Association for Buddhist Studies 2011, Dharma Drum Buddhist College (Taiwan), June 25, 2011).
(4) Offering an interface that can apply these various resources in an integrated manner^
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, "Buddhist texts as Internet resources," Seminar on Applying Computers to Oriental Studies (2007): 125-134.
- Nagasaki, Kiyonori, Tōru Tomabechi, Dorji Wangchuk , Orna Almogi, and Masahiro Shimoda, "Collaboration in the Humanities --- Through the Case of Development of the ITLR Project ---," IPSJ Symposium series Vol. 2011 No. 8 (2011): 155-160.